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I received a great email from Magen L., who says:
I no longer have any retirement savings because I cashed it all out to pay my debt. We also sold our home and moved into an apartment just as the pandemic was hitting. With the sale of our house, the fact that my husband is working overtime, and the stimulus money, we've saved nearly $10,000 and should have more by the end of the year. My primary question is, what should we do with it?
Right now, I have our extra money in a low-interest bank savings [account], and I'm considering moving it to a high-yield savings [account] as our emergency fund. Is that a good idea? For additional money we save, I intend to use it as a down payment on a new house. However, should I be investing in Roth IRAs instead? What is the best option?
Another question comes from Bianca G., who says:
I have zero credit card debt, but I have a car loan and a student loan. I will be receiving a large amount of money sometime next year. If my fiancÃ© and I want to buy a home, is it better to pay off my car first and then my student loan, or should I just pay down a big portion of my student loan?
Thanks Megan and Bianca for your questions. I'll answer them and give you a three-step plan to prioritize your extra money and make your finances more secure. No matter if you're a good saver or you get a cash windfall from a tax refund, an inheritance, or the sale of a home, extra money should never be squandered.
What to do with extra cash
Maybe you're like Magen and have extra cash that could be working harder for you, but you're not sure what to do with it. You may even be paralyzed and do nothing because you have a deep-seated fear of making a big mistake with your cash.
In some cases, having your money sit idle is precisely the right financial move. But it depends on whether or not you've accomplished three fundamental financial goals, which we'll cover.
To know the right way to manage extra cash, you need to step back and take a holistic view of your entire financial life.
To know the right way to manage extra cash, you need to step back and take a holistic view of your entire financial life. Consider what you're doing right and where you're vulnerable.
Try using a three-pronged approach that I call the PIP plan, which stands for:
- Prepare for the unexpected
- Invest for the future
- Pay off high-interest debt
Let's examine each one to understand how to use the PIP (prepare, invest, and pay off) approach for your situation.
How to prepare for the unexpected
The first fundamental goal you should have is to prepare for the unexpected. As you know, life is full of surprises. Some of them bring happiness, but there's an infinite number of devastating events that could hurt you financially.
In an instant, you could get fired from your job, experience a natural disaster, get a severe illness, or lose a spouse. If 2020 has taught us anything, it's that we have to be as mentally, physically, and financially prepared as possible for what may be around the corner.
While no amount of money can reverse a tragedy, having safety nets can protect your finances. That makes coping with a tragedy easier.
Getting equipped for the unexpected is an ongoing challenge. Your approach should change over time because it depends on your income, debt, number of dependents, and breadwinners in a family.
While no amount of money can reverse a tragedy, having safety nets—such as an emergency fund and various types of insurance—can protect your finances. That makes coping with a tragedy easier.
Everyone should accumulate an emergency fund equal to at least three to six months' worth of their living expenses. For instance, if you spend $3,000 a month on essentials—such as housing, utilities, food, and debt payments—make a goal to keep at least $9,000 in an FDIC-insured bank savings account.
While keeping that much in savings may sound boring, the goal for an emergency fund is safety, not growth. The idea is to have immediate access to your cash when you need it. That's why I don't recommend investing your emergency money unless you have more than a six-month reserve.
The goal for an emergency fund is safety, not growth.
If you don't have enough saved, aim to bridge the gap over a reasonable period. For instance, you could save one half of your target over two years or one third over three years. You can put your goal on autopilot by creating an automatic monthly transfer from your checking into your savings account.
Megan mentioned using high-yield savings, which can be a good option because it pays a bit more interest for large balances. However, the higher rate typically comes with limitations, such as applying only to a threshold balance, so be sure to understand the account terms.
Insurance protects your finances
Another critical aspect of preparing for the unexpected is having enough of the right kinds of insurance. Here are some policies you may need:
- Auto insurance if you drive your own or someone else's vehicle
- Homeowners insurance, which is typically required when you have a mortgage
- Renters insurance if you rent a home or apartment
- Health insurance, which pays a portion of your medical bills
- Disability insurance replaces a percentage of income if you get sick or injured and can no longer work
- Life insurance if you have dependents or debt co-signers who would suffer financial hardship if you died
RELATED: How to Create Foolproof Safety Nets
How to invest for your future
Once you get as prepared as possible for the unexpected by building an emergency fund and getting the right kinds of insurance, the next goal I mentioned is investing for retirement. That’s the “I” in PIP, right behind prepare for the unexpected.
Investments can go down in value—you should never invest money you can’t live without.
While many people use the terms saving and investing interchangeably, they’re not the same. Let’s clarify the difference between investing and saving so you can think strategically about them:
Saving is for the money you expect to spend within the next few years and don’t want to risk losing it. In other words, you save money that you want to keep 100% safe because you know you’ll need it or because you could need it. While it won’t earn much interest, you’ll be able to tap it in an instant.
Investing is for the money you expect to spend in the future, such as in five or more years. Purchasing an investment means you’re exposing money to some amount of risk to make it grow. Investments can go down in value; therefore, you should never invest money you can’t live without.
In general, I recommend that you invest through a qualified retirement account, such as a workplace plan or an IRA, which come with tax benefits to boost your growth. My recommendation is to contribute no less than 10% to 15% of your pre-tax income for retirement.
Magen mentioned Roth IRAs, and it may be a good option for her to rebuild her retirement savings. For 2020, you can contribute up to $6,000, or $7,000 if you’re over age 50, to a traditional or a Roth IRA. You typically must have income to qualify for an IRA. However, if you’re married and file taxes jointly, a non-working spouse can max out an IRA based on household income.
For workplace retirement plans, such as a 401(k), you can contribute up to $19,500, or $26,000 if you’re over 50 for 2020. Some employers match a certain percent of contributions, which turbocharges your account. That’s why it’s wise to invest enough to max out any free retirement matching at work. If your employer kicks in matching funds, you can exceed the annual contribution limits that I mentioned.
RELATED: A 5-Point Checklist for How to Invest Money Wisely
How to pay off high-interest debt
Once you're working on the first two parts of my PIP plan by preparing for the unexpected and investing for the future, you're in a perfect position also to pay off high-interest debt, the final "P."
Always tackle your high-interest debts before any other debts because they cost you the most. They usually include credit cards, car loans, personal loans, and payday loans with double-digit interest rates. Remember that when you pay off a credit card that charges 18%, that's just like earning 18% on an investment after taxes—pretty impressive!
Remember that when you pay off a credit card that charges 18%, that's just like earning 18% on an investment after taxes—pretty impressive!
Typical low-interest loans include student loans, mortgages, and home equity lines of credit. These types of debt also come with tax breaks for some of the interest you pay, making them cost even less. So, don't even think about paying them down before implementing your PIP plan.
Getting back to Bianca's situation, she didn't mention having emergency savings or regularly investing for retirement. I recommend using her upcoming cash windfall to set these up before paying off a low-rate student loan.
Let's say Bianca sets aside enough for her emergency fund, purchases any missing insurance, and still has cash left over. She could use some or all of it to pay down her auto loan. Since the auto loan probably has a higher interest rate than her student loan and doesn't come with any tax advantages, it's wise to pay it down first.
Once you've put your PIP plan into motion, you can work on other goals, such as saving for a house, vacation, college, or any other dream you have.
Questions to ask when you have extra money
Here are five questions to ask yourself when you have a cash windfall or accumulate savings and aren’t sure what to do with it.
1. Do I have emergency savings?
Having some emergency money is critical for a healthy financial life because no one can predict the future. You might have a considerable unexpected expense or lose income.
Without emergency money to fall back on, you're living on the edge, financially speaking. So never turn down the opportunity to build a cash reserve before spending money on anything else.
2. Do I contribute to a retirement account at work?
Getting a windfall could be the ticket to getting started with a retirement plan or increasing contributions. It's wise to invest at least 10% to 15% of your gross income for retirement.
Investing in a workplace retirement plan is an excellent way to set aside small amounts of money regularly. You'll build wealth for the future, cut your taxes, and maybe even get some employer matching.
3. Do I have an IRA?
Don't have a job with a retirement plan? Not a problem. If you (or a spouse when you file taxes jointly) have some amount of earned income, you can contribute to a traditional or a Roth IRA. Even if you contribute to a retirement plan at work, you can still max out an IRA in the same year—which is a great way to use a cash windfall.
4. Do I have high-interest debt?
If you have expensive debt, such as credit cards or payday loans, paying them down is the next best way to spend extra money. Take the opportunity to use a windfall to get rid of high-interest debt and stay out of debt in the future.
5. Do I have other financial goals?
After you’ve built up your emergency fund, have money flowing into tax-advantaged retirement accounts, and are whittling down high-interest debt, start thinking about other financial goals. Do you want to buy a house? Go to graduate school? Send your kids to college?
How to manage a cash windfall
Review your financial situation at least once a year to make sure you’re still on track.
When it comes to managing extra money, always consider the big picture of your financial life and choose strategies that follow my PIP plan in order: prepare for the unexpected, invest for the future, and pay off high-interest debt.
Review your situation at least once a year to make sure you’re still on track. As your life changes, you may need more or less emergency money or insurance coverage.
When your income increases, take the opportunity to bump up your retirement contribution—even increasing it one percent per year can make a huge difference.
And here's another important quick and dirty tip: when you make more money, don't let your cost of living increase as well. If you earn more but maintain or even decrease your expenses, you'll be able to reach your financial goals faster.
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Life insurance can be expensive and if itâs essential those high costs can leave a nasty taste in your mouth. You may wonder if itâs worth purchasing a policy at all, which could place your family in jeopardy as they wonât have the cover they need when you pass.Â However, there are a few ways […]
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My daughter recently lost $80 in her bedroom. It’s just gone. One theory is that we accidentally donated it to Goodwill, since she had stored it in an old book and we’d been clearing out a lot of junk. But it got me thinking: What would be a better place to keep money she’s not using?
She’s been bringing in some respectable allowance earnings with the chores she’s taken on recently. Plus, she always receives some money for birthdays, and she doesn’t spend much. Maybe an investment account?
While the investing rules are a little different for minors compared to adults, it’s not hard to get your child started investing. Even if they only make a little money, the experience may encourage them to start investing for retirement early in adulthood, which can set them up for life. Here’s how to show your kid the basics of investing.
Determine what kind of account to set up
Children can set up savings, checking, or brokerage accounts using the Uniform Transfers to Minors Act (UTMA) or the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (UGMA). All they need is an adult (presumably you) to sign on as the account’s custodian. This means you have to approve what your child does with the money until your kid is of age, which is 18 or 21, depending on what state you live in. Because the funds or investments in a UTMA legally belong to your child, once they’re in this account, they can only be spent for your child’s benefit. You can’t deposit $100 in your child’s UTMA account and later decide you want it back or transfer it to another child.
Setting up a UTMA account is much like setting up any other account. You can walk into a bank or credit union and open one for your child by filling out some paperwork and showing your identification, or you can go online to sign up for one with a firm such as Vanguard.
Your child could also set up a UTMA 529 savings plan. The 529 is a college savings vehicle that has tax advantages, but also comes with restrictions on how it can be spent. More on that below.
Aside from a traditional brokerage account, your child could also try a micro-investing account, since they’re likely to be starting with a small amount of money. You can set up a custodial account through Stash or Stockpile — in fact, Stockpile even works with BusyKid, an app that helps families track kids’ chores and pay their allowances digitally.
Besides an investment account, you may also need to open a checking or money market UTMA for your child and link it to the brokerage account, as a way to fund the brokerage account and a place to receive dividends and other proceeds.
Unless they have earned income from working, your kids can’t set up a traditional or Roth individual retirement account. (See also: 9 Essential Personal Finance Skills to Teach Your Kid Before They Move Out)
Figure out what investment vehicles to use
Once their account is set up, kids have access to the same investment products that adults do, such as mutual funds, individual stocks, or exchange-traded funds. Which products they choose depends on their interests, how much money they have to start with, and how actively they wish to invest.
A child who is interested in following one or more companies in the news and making active investment choices may want to buy individual stocks. Look for a brokerage firm with no minimum initial deposit (or a low one) and low trade fees. While this is a concrete and exciting way to start understanding the stock market, make sure that kids understand that for the long haul, many financial advisers recommend investing in funds over individual stocks.
If your child doesn’t have any individual companies in mind, but would like to invest in the market as a whole, a mutual fund such as an S&P 500 index fund is a great way to go. Good ones have low expenses, meaning that your kid gets to keep more of his/her investment. Unfortunately, mutual funds do tend to require minimum investments. For instance, to buy shares in Charles Schwab’s often-recommended S&P 500 index fund, you need to open a Schwab brokerage account with a $1,000 initial deposit. However, there is one way around that: You can also open a Schwab account with a $100 deposit — but you have to deposit an additional $100 each month until the account has a $1,000 balance.
Your child could also buy exchange-traded funds, which work a lot like mutual funds but tend to have lower minimum investments.
Another way to get started with a small initial investment is to use one of the micro-investing apps mentioned above, which split one share of stock or of an ETF and sells the investor a fraction of it. These apps can make getting started very simple for young kids by characterizing investments by category. In exchange for making things this simple for you, these services usually charge a monthly fee; Stash’s is $1 per month.
While your child could also opt to invest in Treasury bonds or certificates of deposit, at today’s low interest rates, this probably wouldn’t be a very exciting way for them to learn about investing.
What about taxes?
Does your child have to pay taxes on their investment gains? Do they have to file their own tax return? The answer to both questions is, "It depends."
If your child’s investment income is less than $1,050, don’t worry about it; you don’t need to report this to the Internal Revenue Service. If the child’s investment income is less than $12,000, the parent can opt to report it on their own tax return, or file a separate return for the child. At more than $12,000, you have to file a tax return for your child.
What rate will your kid pay? Unearned income up to $2,100 will get taxed at between 0 percent and 10 percent, depending on what kind of income it is. After that, your child’s unearned income will be taxed at your rate, no matter if you file separately or together. So don’t imagine that you can save a bundle on taxes by transferring all your investment accounts to your kids — the IRS caught on to that gambit years ago.
If your child chose to put their money in a UTMA 529 plan, they never have to pay federal taxes (and generally not state taxes either) on the earnings, as long as they spend it on qualifying educational expenses, such as tuition and textbooks.
Will investing hurt their chances of getting college aid?
It’s important to note that when it’s time to apply for college financial aid, assets in the child’s name count against them more than assets in the parents’ name. Unless you’re sure your family won’t qualify for financial aid — and outside of the 1 percent, that’s not usually something you can be sure of in advance — encourage your child to choose shorter-term goals for their investment account. They could choose a goal of anything from buying a new Lego set, to a week of sleep-away camp, to their first car.
Again, putting their investments in a 529 plan changes the situation a bit. Even if the child is the account owner, the financial aid officers consider assets in a 529 account a parental asset. This is great, because only about 5 percent of parental assets count against financial aid eligibility, compared to 20 percent of student assets in a non-529 UTMA account.
If your student does invest college savings in their own name, have them spend their own money first before you tap into a 529 plan or any other savings you are holding for their education.
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